By Beck, David
Read or Download A grammatical sketch of Upper Necaxa Totonac PDF
Best nonfiction_3 books
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge consuming illness are all linked to major emotional and relational rigidity. they could have critical actual problems. so much situations of anorexia and bulimia nervosa stay undiagnosed, and lots of clinically determined circumstances are inappropriately taken care of. it really is accordingly necessary to lessen the space among examine proof and medical event as a way to increase prognosis and therapy of those psychological problems.
- Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages (Transformation of the Roman World)
- How to Make the Most of a Flying Saucer Experience
- David E. Kelley
- Red Sonja #1: The Ring of Ikribu
- Particles at Fluid Interfaces and Membranes, 1st Edition
- Acrocorinth: Excavations in 1926 (Corinth vol.3.1)
Extra info for A grammatical sketch of Upper Necaxa Totonac
1. Optative The most prevalent mood-marker in UNT is the morpheme ka-, which on its own marks the optative mood. Like the tense markers, ka- immediately precedes the subject personprefixes on the verb, although unlike tense affixes, ka- can optionally be affixed to preverbal adverbs, as shown in (77): (77) a. ’ 46 b. ’ ta–paÓ… INCH–lie:2SUBJ:PFV It is not clear what, if any, difference in meaning there is between the two positions of ka-. To date no examples of ka- affixed to adverbs have been found when more than a single adverb is present, nor has ka- been found affixed to other pre-verbal elements such as the negative morpheme xa…; particles such as mat ‘QUOTATIVE’, tßu… ‘DESPECTATIVE’, or tßi: ‘how’; or the relative pronouns ti… and tu….
SUBJ–UNR–work–IMPF ‘if you don’t pay me I won’t go to work’ To date my corpus does not contain examples of this kind of conditional sentence that do not also contain the negative particle xa… as well as ti-. Other conditional expressions are formed by the combination of the negative particle xa…, ti- and the optative morpheme, ka-: (89) a. SUBJ here ‘let’s go because if we don’t hurry all of us will die here’ b. SUBJ–INST–put–BEN–RPT–IMPF–2OBJ ADD–CLS–one 1PO–hand ‘if you don’t let me go, I will hit you with my other hand’ The same combination of affixes and the negative particle also yields expressions of unrealized possibilities, as in (90): (90) a.
X didn’t happen’), the future versus past tense readings being context-dependent. The combination of ti- and the negative particle is also used to form an indirect (polite) imperative construction: (86) a. ’ b. SUBJ porque because nak=xíku LOC=Xicotepec ‘you’re not going to bed here because weEXC are going to Xicotepec’ The literal meaning of these expressions seems to be ‘we/you are not going to do X’, but in context they have the pragmatic force of commands. Another use of ti- is in the formation of negative questions: 50 (87) a.