A History of Medicine by Lois N. Magner

By Lois N. Magner

Stressing significant topics within the heritage of drugs, this moment version stimulates additional exploration of the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed clinical practices in a long time prior and in smooth medical practice-highlighting the practices of civilizations world wide, in addition to the study of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present realizing of healthiness and sickness.

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Larsen, C. S. (1999). Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton. New York: Cambridge University Press. Ortner, D. , and Aufderheide, A. , eds. (1991). Human Paleopathology: Current Syntheses and Future Options. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Roberts, C. , and and Manchester, K. (1995). The Archaeology of Disease. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Rothschild, B. , and and Martin, L. D. (1993). Paleopathology: Disease in the Fossil Record. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Although the healer needed some knowledge of anatomy and drug lore, precise knowledge of magical rituals was more important because errors in this department could alienate the gods. Hordes of demons and devils were thought to cause diseases and misfortune; each evil spirit tended to cause particular disorders. As in the case of folk medicine and so-called-primitive medicine, Mesopotamian healers also attempted to rid their patients of disease-causing demons by the administration of noxious remedies.

Bodies were wrapped in skins or linen and interred in shallow graves in the desert. If the body was not discovered by jackals or otherwise disturbed, the hot dry sand would draw out moisture from the soft tissues, leaving the body looking rather like tanned leather, but still recognizable several thousand years later. Simple sand burials continued to be the norm for peasants, but during the Dynastic Period, the burial chambers of pharaohs and other 34 A History of Medicine An Egyptian mummy.

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