A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943 by Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II

By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II

Drawing on in general unpublished records, A state Collapses revises the conventional figuring out of a severe second within the heritage of global battle II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The publication argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations sooner than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments led to an by surprise lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's give up.

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The two leaders had thought to apply this principle to Japan and Germany and to exclude Italy in order to "encourage a break-up" within that country - that is, the possibility of a separate peace, which both men continued to pursue. Churchill informed the War Cabinet telegraphically, asking for its opinion. The answer, formulated by Eden and Attlee, made clear the disagreement on Italy that divided the British government. The War Cabinet approved the adoption of unconditional surrender, but strongly opposed the exclusion of Italy, maintaining that it would be "a mistake to make a distinction among the three Axis partners," because the threat of severe and intransigent treatment would create a better possibility of obtaining "the desired effect on Italian morale"30 than would a soft attitude.

Our forces: Seventh Army, 6 divisions, including airborne division; Eighth Army, 7 divisions, including airborne and armoured brigades, making Allied total 13 divisions.. It can be assumed that all Italian forces in island on July 10 have been destroyed, though a few battered units may have escaped to mainland. It is impossible yet to estimate booty and war material captured. "82 Actually, in spite of this triumphant tone, the fact that the German troops had fully succeeded in withdrawing from the island was certainly not to be considered in a positive light, because the Allies would be facing at Salerno the same troops they had not been able to stop or capture in Sicily.

Italy should be occupied by a mobile force of moderate size, stationed at strategic centers throughout the country but with full power to move freely wherever necessary. 2. This force should be unified under a single command and should be composed of American and British forces operating in the European theater. 3. While the broad policies of the occupation administration will be formulated by the United Nations political authorities, the military commander should within the scope of those policies have absolute authority over the occupied territory.

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