A Theory of Possibility: A Constructivistic and by Nicholas Rescher

By Nicholas Rescher

Contents: I. estate attribution and its modes — II. Essentialistic foundations — III. Individuation and the confident conception of attainable contributors — IV. The structure of attainable worlds and the matter of the trans-world id of people — V. The systematization of quantified modal common sense — VI. lifestyles conditions — VII. tendencies — VIII. legislation and lawfulness — IX. Contrary-to-fact suppositions and counterfactual conditionals — X. The doctrine of inner kinfolk — XI. A conceptualistic metaphysic of possibilia

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Granting this dualism, the question arises concerning how the two factors constituting perception work together. The answer to this question is determined by the dependence of the Gestalt-qualities on the elementary data. 25 Because of this, production cannot be performed unless sensibility has furnished raw materials. The perceptual factor of extrasensuous provenience is applied to these data and organizes them. In other words, the functioning of sensibility is required in order that the activity of production can, in turn, come into play.

One can invert it with more or less difficulty, seeing the same parts of it now in the back, then in front; shifting from one perception to the other, one sees that an apex or an edge which was in front is now placed behind, or inversely. Finally, this figure can be seen as neither flat nor three-dimensional. Without the objective state of affairs undergoing the least modification, one might direct his attention to one or two lines and thus mentally isolate them from the context within which they are found when looking at the figure spontaneously.

Because it is possible to adopt this attitude in respect of any perceivable object whatever, Benussi’s theory can be generalized. The equivocal figures referred to as examples are, instead, exceptional cases; the things with which we are familiar and which surround us (houses, practical objects, animals, men, and the like) are stable and exempt from all equivocalness. Nothing, however, can prevent us from adopting the analytic attitude as regards all these objects, whatever their stability and coherence.

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