By Allan Waters (auth.)
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Additional info for Active Filter Design
2 It should be pointed out that an adjustment to the scaling may be made in order that realistic values of resistors and capacitors may be achieved. F It can be seen that with a larger value of capacitor, the resistor values are more realistic. 3. 11 Gain/phase responses for second-order VCVS filter An insight into the action of the filter may be obtained by noting that at low frequencies the reactances of C1 and C2 are high and the signal is applied via resistors R 1 and R 2 with negligible attenuation.
An interesting modification to the circuit may be made by making R 2 a short-circuit and R 1 an open-circuit; the gain becomes unity [V0 /Jli = 1 + (0/oo)] and the circuit is then described as a unity gain buffer or voltage follower circuit. 4 The non-ideal op-amp It is possible to construct op-amps to give a good approximation to the ideal within prescribed frequency limits. However, the gain of the op-amp is a function of the frequency of the applied signal and the actual behaviour can only approach the ideal over a specified range of frequency.
Assume that the opamps used have high open-loop gains and input impedance values. 15) Since a major assumption is that the gains of the op-amps are very high, then we may quote the following voltages: Vb = V2 , Va = V 1 , Ve = Vr. 17) The resistor R 1 is usually made variable in order to adjust the gain. A typical instrumentation op-amp would have A 0 = 2 x 10 5 , Ri = 10 12 ohms. Active Filter Design 36 This circuit is an example of a differential-in and differential-out (A 1 , A 2 ) amplifier with negative feedback and equalised amplification.