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These o i l formulations remained on the ground during the winter and when flooded with snow water proved toxic to the newly hatched mosquito larvae. A dosage of 2 pounds of D D T per acre (10 quarts of a 5 % D D T - o i l solution) prevented mosquito development in some instances for 2 years. , HM* Washington, D C 20036 48 ADVANCES IN CHEMISTRY SERIES Since D D T became available, the volume of oils used i n mosquito control work has dropped considerably. ch005 Year 1943 1948 1949 1950 1951 Gallons of Oil 173,000 80,000 90,000 81,000 100,000 Where mosquitoes have developed resistance to petroleum oils containing D D T , they have been controlled with oils containing chlordan or benzene hexachloride (57).
I t seems apparent from these data that the per cent unsulfonated residue cannot be employed alone as a test for the quality control of isoparaffinic fractions designed for horticultural application. Relation of Acid Number to Phytotoxicity Crafts and Reiber (2) suggested that oxidation, accelerated by light, may account for the increased toxicity of stored isoparaffinic oils. Although the oxidation products formed are not known, they appear to be primarily organic acids. 0 Figure 1. 0 Correlation of Acid Number with Plant Injury I t appeared desirable to use a method which was relatively simple, and generally known, i n initial efforts to correlate data on the phytotoxicity of isoparaffinic fractions with an acceptable quality control procedure.
O i l s have been used for centuries to control certain insects, but the first known record of their use for controlling mosquitoes is found i n Dunlap's American Daily Advertiser i n 1793 (8). As the late rains will produce a great increase of mosquitoes i n the city, distressing to the sick, and troublesome to those who are well, I imagine i t will be agreeable to the citizens to know that the increase of those poisonous insects may be diminished b y a very simple and cheap mode, which accident discovered.